The Blind Readers' Page--Main Menu

LIBRARY SERVICE TO THE BLIND AND PHYSICALLY HANDICAPPED

I. OVERVIEWS

EASI (Equal Access to Software and Information) has a weekly webcast and the second Thursday of every month focuses on making libraries more accessible for patrons with disabilities.

EASI also publishes a journal, "Information Technology and Disabilities," several issues of which have been devoted to questions of access to libraries and information services.

Share the Vision (UK) "is a partnership of organisations representing blind people and the library profession. It was established in 1989 with the objective of improving access to library and information services for blind and visually impaired people." For further information, contact:
David Owen
Share the Vision
Kent County Central Library
Springfield, Maidstone
Kent ME14 2LH
Tel: 01622 696519
Fax: 01622 690897
E-mail: sharethevision@hotmail.com

The proceedings of "Telematics in the Education of the Visually Handicapped" (Conference, Paris, June 1998) have as much to offer librarians as teachers, with papers dealing with such issues as universal accessibility of web sites, copyright, integration of accessible on-line literature into the general library catalog and virtual documentation centers.

"Library Service to Patrons with Blindness and Visual Impairments: Resource Guide for Information Professionals," is disappointingly thin, considering that it was produced by the Graduate School of Library and Information Science of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

"Library Services to Special Populations: Steps to Service: A Guide for Information Professionals" is library science boilerplate, so general that it could apply to absolutely any group of library customers, "special" or not.

Another high-level overview is Samuel T. Huang, "The Impact of Modern Technologies on Library Service for Students with Disabilities," Handicaps' Digest, November-December, 1997.

"Equal Access to Information: Libraries Serving People With Disabilities," by Elizabeth Breedlove, is an excellent overview of services to people with disabilities in general public libraries. Her comments on the involvement of disabled people themselves in planning for services are expecially apt.

Peter Craddock, "Talking newspapers and magazines for visually impaired and other people with print disabilities: an international perspective," shows the variety of ways information is delivered in special formats.

Jenny Craven. "Electronic Access for All: awareness in creating accessible web sites for the university library." Empirical studies of the accessibility of some sites and a lengthy "Good Practice Guide."

Evans, Margaret Kinnell. "Serving the Needs of Visually Impaired Information Seekers in UK Public Libraries." 66th IFLA Council and General Conference (Jerusalem, Israel, 13-18 August 2000). Summarizes the results of a comprehensive survey of library services to visually impaired people in the UK.

The Newsletter of the Section of the Libraries for the Blind (IFLA) is available on-line, in braille or on diskette.

The Force Foundation aims "to provide support--in the broadest sense--to organisations linked to IFLA and which are concerned with the provision of appropriate media and information to any persons who need them due to visual or other handicap."

"Libraries Without Walls" is a collection of sources compiled by EASI to help librarians deal with universal access to their services, especially by people with disabilities.

Library Users of America is an organization of users of library services for the blind and physically handicapped.

Friends of Libraries for Deaf Action
Contact: Alice L. Hagemeyer, founder of FOLDA
2930 Craiglawn Road
Silver Spring, MD 20904-1816
FAX: 301-572-4134
Email: alhagemeyer@juno.com

Lesley Sams and Penelope Yates-Mercer. "The Web for students and staff with disabilities: visual impairment, dyslexia and motor impairment." A discussion of theoretical issues of accessibility is supplemented by empirical studies of academic web sites.

Skrzeszewski, Stan. "Building smart communities: what they are and how they can benefit blind and visually impaired persons." 66th IFLA Council and General Conference (Jerusalem, Israel, 13-18 August 2000). Library service in the context of a whole community using advanced communication and information infrastructure.

Tank, Elsebeth. "The Digital Society's Challenge to the Library for the Blind." 66th IFLA Council and General Conference (Jerusalem, Israel, 13-18 August 2000). New strategies and potential roles for libraries for the blind in the light of advances in information technology.

Ray Turner is the author of "Library Patrons With Disabilities" (San Antonio, TX: White Buffalo Press, 1996), ISBN 0-9653037-0-5 and is the publisher of a newsletter, "Library ADA/504 Coordinator," back issues of which are available, in excerpted and outline form, online.

The National Lekotek Center's manual, "Literacy is for Everyone: Making Library Activities Accessible for Children with Disabilities," "illustrates the means for achieving fully accessible library programming in cost effective ways and assists communities in discovering creative ways for addressing the requirements" of the ADA and Section 504.
Phone: 800-366-PLAY

Kirsty Williamson, Don Schauder and Amanda Bow, "Information Seeking by Blind and Sight Impaired Citizens: An Ecological Study," Information Research, Vol. 5, Num. 4 (July, 2000). An overview of the subject, based on research done in Australia, with unsurprising conclusions, but a wealth of useful footnotes to other research.

Four electronic mailing lists provide practical information from the field about issues of library access for people with disabilities:

Librarians' Connections has a fuller list of mailing lists and online serials for librarians concerned with issues of accessibility.

"Resources for Librarians with Disabilities" focuses on the librarian with a disability rather than the patron. There are links to print and on-line resources covering library services and employment.

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II. STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES

The Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (Access Board) has issued the final "Electronic and Information Technology Accessibility Standards" covering accesss for federal government employees and the general public to electronic and information technology that the federal government develops, procures, maintains, or uses.

The Association of Specialized and Cooperative Library Agencies, a division of the ALA, has promulgated a proposed policy on "Library Services for People with Disabilities." Apart from some curious references to "volunteer readers in the library" and "voluntary technology assistants," and the apart from the absence of a policy statement on the accessibility of library web sites and third-party databases, the policy covers the expected territory.

"Guidelines for Technical Issues in Request for Proposal (RFP) requirements and Contract Negotiations (January 1999)" by the International Coalition of Library Consortia provides some guidance on standards of accessibility for users of non-graphical browsers, which are still used by many visually handicapped library customers even as graphical browsers are replacing the command-line as the user-interface of choice for designers of on-line public access catalogs.

"Guidelines for Library Service to Braille Users," by the IFLA Section of Libraries for the Blind, focus on services to blind people in public libraries used by the general public.

"Draft Guidelines on Library Standards for People with Disabilities," by the ALIA Disabilities Interest Group (Australia): in contrast to American standards, which are concerned with library service to special populations of users in special libraries, these standards look at service to the disabled in the context of universal library service.

A Task Force of the Canadian Library Association produced "Canadian Guidelines on Library and Information Services for People with Disabilities," which were "intended to be used by librarians as the basis for creating libraries which are accessible to all Canadians." The "Guidelines " cover planning, budgeting, marketing and promotion, public services, collection development and other topics. Like the Australian standards, the Canadian Guidelines cover services to the disabled in all libraries, not just those devoted exclusively to serving the disabled.

Some states and national governments have created general standards of information accessibility that are applicable to all state agencies, including college and university libraries:

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III. LAWS

A good brief discussion of the basic obligations of libraries to serve the disabled is "The Law and Library Access for Patrons with Disabilities," in a special issue devoted to library issues of "Information Technology and Disabilities": Volume 4, Number 1/2 (May 1997).

Ray Turner is the author of "Library Patrons With Disabilities" (San Antonio, TX: White Buffalo Press, 1996), ISBN 0-9653037-0-5 and is the publisher of a newsletter, "Library ADA/504 Coordinator," back issues of which are available, in excerpted and outline form, online.

Cynthia D. Waddell, ADA Coordinator, City of San Jose, CA, in "Applying the ADA to the Internet: A Web Accessibility Standard," makes a strong argument that the web pages of public institutions, including public libraries, must be accessible to the disabled. Her list of resources tells webmasters how to do it.

Cynthia Waddell, "The Growing Digital Divide in Access for People with Disabilities: Overcoming Barriers to Participation," is a comprehensive discussion of the legal and technological issues; the footnotes are an excellent guide to recent laws and research that bear on the obligations of public and academic libraries to serve all their patrons.

Mary Minow's Map to Library Law, besides a broad-ranging set of links to sources of library law, includes a section containing links to material on "Disability Laws and Libraries."

The United States Access Board (a.k.a. Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board) has provided a set of "Questions & Answers about Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act Amendments of 1998" that is mandatory reading for webmasters at institutions falling under the scope of Section 508.

The Office for Civil Rights of the the United States Department of Education has jurisdiction over ADA and Rehabilitation Act questions with reference to, among other institutions, public libraries.

Some states and national governments have created general standards of information accessibility that are applicable to all state agencies, including college and university libraries:

The Association of Tech Act Projects has compiled a handy tabular summary of "Information Technology Access Laws and Policies" as enacted by the states.

The Legal Information Institute at Cornell maintains a page called "disability law: an overview" that offers quick links to federal and state statutes, regulations and cases.

Cynthia D. Waddell and Mark D. Urban, "An Overview of Law & Policy for IT Accessibility: A Resource for State and Local IT Policy Maker," (June 2000) discuss federal law and critical issues bearing on accessibility of local government information sources. Available online from the International Center for Disability Resources on the Internet.

Several letters from the U.S. Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division, Disability Rights Section, dealing with the resolution of complaints under the ADA are relevant to library accessibility:

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IV. TECHNOLOGY FOR ACCESSIBILITY

Alliance for Technology Access. Computer and Web Resources for People with Disabilities: A Guide to Exploring Today's Assistive Technology. 3rd ed. Salt Lake City, UT: Publishers Press, 2000. $20.95.

The American Library Association has available "Universal Access: Electronic Resources in Libraries," a flexible, customizable program for training librarians and volunteers to become more aware of the issues, needs, and concerns of people with disabilities in accessing electronic resources. The program was developed by people at the University of Washington.

The American Library Association briefly describes the "Basic Hardware-Software Configuration for an Accessible Library Workstation." The same page has a link to a very basic list of "Assistive Technology for People with Disabilities and Others." Neither paper deals with the daunting issues of training staff and users.

Mates, Barbara T., with contributions by Doug Wakefield and Judith Dixon. Adaptive Technology for the Internet: Making Electronic Resources Accessible to All. Chicago and London: American Library Association, 2000. ISBN: 0-8389-0752-0. Also available in full on the Web.

Synapse Adaptive advertises an "ADA Workstation" for schools and libraries that is "a completely integrated menu-driven full compliance workstation which answers ADA requirements for reasonable accommodations."

"Guidelines for Technical Issues in Request for Proposal (RFP) requirements and Contract Negotiations (January 1999)" by the International Coalition of Library Consortia provides some guidance on standards of accessibility for users of non-graphical browsers, which are still used by many visually handicapped library customers even as graphical browsers are replacing the command-line as the user-interface of choice for designers of on-line public access catalogs.

John Godber generalizes from the experience of TESTLAB in his article "How open is your Opac?," and raises important questions about how disabled people can be served in public libraries.

"Computers in Libraries," Volume 19, Number 6 (June 1999) is a special issue devoted to adaptive computer technology. Several of the articles are available on-line in full text; the rest as abstracts.

Librarians contemplating doing bibligraphic instruction by distance education may profit from a review of "Distance Education: Access Guidelines for Students with Disabilities August 1999," issued by the Office of the Chancellor of the California Community Colleges.

"Providing Access to Library Automation Systems for Students with Disabilities" was prepared by the High Tech Center Training Unit of the California Community Colleges. It provides a general introduction, and sections on access guidelines, access tools, library automation system providers and the planning process. The site has a great many other documents of wide interest.

Carmela Cunningham and Norman Coombs, "Information Access and Adaptive Technology" (Oryx, 1997).

Individual issues of "Information Technology and Disabilities" are archived on the St. Johns University listserv and on the EASI web site.

The full texts of papers from an IFLA conference on "Information Technologies and Library Services for the Visually Impaired" are made available by the Danmarks BlindeBibliotek.

"Reference Service for Students with Disabilities: Desktop Braille Publishing in the Academic Library," by Tom McNulty (reprinted from "Reference Services Review," Vol. 21 [1992]).

For a European perspective on universal accessibility, see the INCLUDE Project (INCLUsion of Disabled and Elderly people in telematics). Their design tips are quite useful, as is their overview (now somewhat dated as to details) of "Accessible Formats & Interpersonal Communication."

The Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST): "an educational, not-for-profit organization that uses technology to expand opportunities for all people, including those with disabilities"; emphasizes principles of universal design, not mere accomodation of ordinary programs to people with disabilities; the home of "Bobby," an HTML analyzer that can check a library's web site for accessibility.

Paciello, Michael G. Web Accessibility for People with Disabilities. Lawrence, KS: CMP Books, 2000. ISBN 1-929629-08-7. $34.95. Paciello, one of the prime movers of the Web Accessibility Initiative, covers all the fundamentals, tables, frames, multimedia, Javascripts, Cascading Style Sheets, in a clear, concise style with abundant examples. An indispensable book.

"Planning for Library Access" has some good advice about the institutional politics of planning for access by disabled students to college libraries.

Cynthia Waddell, "The Growing Digital Divide in Access for People with Disabilities: Overcoming Barriers to Participation," is a comprehensive discussion of the legal and technological issues; the footnotes are an excellent guide to recent laws and research that bear on the obligations of public and academic libraries to serve all their patrons. iaa

The above article by Waddell is part of a larger page devoted to making the web resources of Washington state accessible to all; the links there are a good selection of primary sources on accessibility of the WWW.

Librarians charged with bibliographical instruction and interested in making multimedia presentations universally accessible to their customers will be interested in "Authoring Hypermedia Systems for Blind People," by Helen Petrie and others.

There is further guidance, applicable both to bibliographical instruction at a distance and to customized multimedia software instructional materials, in "Making Educational Software Accessible: Design Guidelines Including Math and Science Solutions," from the CD-ROM Access Project of the National Center for Accessible Media.

Librarians wanting to create web pages accessible to all should start with the resources gathered Axel Schmetzke, a librarian at the University of Wisconsin--Stevens Point. The page itself also uses style sheets to enhance accessibility.

The HTML Writers Guild offers an inexpensive on-line class to its members, "Designing for Universal Accessibility with HTML 4.0," that ought to be useful to library webmasters. The Guild recently launched its AWARE Center to serve as a central resource for web authors learning about web accessibility. The "Authoring Resources" are a comprehensive set of links.

EASI (Equal Access to Software and Information) has much useful material, including copies of letters from the Office for Civil Rights, United States Department of Education, dealing specifically with issues of access to information in schools and libraries by disabled students.

Synapse Adaptive advertises an "ADA Workstation" for schools and libraries that is "a completely integrated menu-driven full compliance workstation which answers ADA requirements for reasonable accommodations."

"Web Design for Dyslexic Users," by the Davis Dyslexia Association International, has much good advice for webmasters wanting to connect with the huge number of web users with dyslexia.

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V. PROJECTS

The Library Technology Access (LTA) initiative is a strategic relationship formed by Hewlett Packard and the Association of Specialized and Cooperative Library Agencies to help develop accessible computer workstation solutions in libraries nationwide for people with disabilities. The four public and two university libraries selected for the first phase of the LTA initiative are the Cleveland Public Library, Milwaukee Public Library, Johnson County Public Library (Kansas), San Diego Public Library, University of South Dakota and Arizona State University.
The LTA initiative's Internet-connected workstations will consist of ergonomic furniture, a Compaq Evo PC, an HP Scanjet scanner and HP LaserJet printer, Microsoft Office software and a variety of assistive technology products that address the needs of library users with visual, hearing, mobility or learning disabilities.

Calvo, Francisco Martinez. "MIRACLE in Jerusalem: Connecting to Music Collections." 66th IFLA Council and General Conference (Jerusalem, Israel, 13-18 August 2000). Describes a shared catalog of braille music available online to the public.

Cohen, Uri. "Telebook." 66th IFLA Council and General Conference (Jerusalem, Israel, 13-18 August 2000). Describes how the Central Library for the Blind in Israel uses a telephone system, much like a voice-mail system, to allow users to browse the catalog by telephone.

John Godber generalizes from the experience of TESTLAB in his article "How open is your Opac?," and raises important questions about how disabled people can be served in public libraries.

Griebel, Rosemary. "Partnering Services between Public Libraries and Library Services for the Blind: A Canadian Experience." 66th IFLA Council and General Conference (Jerusalem, Israel, 13-18 August 2000). Reports on an effort "to advance information equity for blind and print disabled individuals, wherever they live, by positioning the local library as the primary service point for access to information. It is a model based on cooperation, and more importantly, the integration of service to blind and print disabled individuals into the mainstream of library service."

The Finnish Library for the Visually Handicapped developed a proprietary reader that in 1996 allowed the Library to lend e-books online to blind people. The reader disables the save and print-screen commands and the text file of the book will time out after sixty days.

Share the Vision (UK) "is a partnership of organisations representing blind people and the library profession. It was established in 1989 with the objective of improving access to library and information services for blind and visually impaired people." For further information, contact:
David Owen
Share the Vision
Kent County Central Library
Springfield, Maidstone
Kent ME14 2LH
Tel: 01622 696519
Fax: 01622 690897
E-mail: sharethevision@hotmail.com

SVB, a Dutch organization "currently co-ordinates two European Projects : TESTLAB (TEsting Systems using Telematics for Library Access for Blind and visually handicapped readers) and the Concerted Action on Music Information in Libraries HARMONICA ( Harmonised Access and Retrieval for Music Oriented Networked Information Concerted Action) and has co-ordinated EXLIB (EXpansion of LIBrary Services for the Visually Handicapped) and CANTATE (Computer Access to NoTation And TExt in music libraries)."

Richard N. Tucker and Mildred Theunisz, "Library Access for the Blind," provide an overview of the TESTLAB project. The paper by Tucker and Theunisz was delivered at the Third Conference of TIDE (Technology for Inclusive Design and Equality), the Proceedings of which are available online and, in part, as a webcast.

A complete set of the TESTLAB Deliverables (or Reports) is available for downloading in MS-Word format. This is the most comprehensive study of access to public libraries by blind and visually handicapped readers, as opposed to access to special library services in special libraries for the blind and physically handicapped. This page also includes links to the deliverables of many other projects for supplying library services to people with special needs.

Pontus Engelbrektsson and I. C. MariAnne Karlsson, in "Designing Access to IT-services: A Case Study on the Development of an Interface for the Visually Impaired Library User," describe their work at the Gothenburg (Sweden) City Library. The paper was delivered, along with others of interest to librarians, at the 3rd TIDE (Technology for Inclusive Design and Equality) Congress, 23-25 June 1998, Marina Congress Center, Helsinki, Finland.

For a European perspective on universal accessibility, see the INCLUDE Project (INCLUsion of Disabled and Elderly people in telematics). Their design tips are quite useful, as is their overview (now somewhat dated as to details) of "Accessible Formats & Interpersonal Communication."

The Centre for Research in Library and Information Management (CERLIM) based at Manchester University is currently undertaking Project NoVA (Non-Visual Access to the Digital Library: the use of Digital Library Interfaces by Blind and Visually-Impaired People)." The NoVA project is concerned with countering the exclusion from access to information which can all too easily occur when individuals are blind or partially sighted. The domain in this project is digital library services, and the concern is that all such services should be as accessible to visually impaired people as to anyone else."

The National Library for the Blind (UK) allows its members free access to KnowUK, an online database of over 65 of the most heavily used reference resources in British libraries. Apparently one need not be living in the UK to register as a member of the NLB and thereby get access to KnowUK.

"NoVA: Non-Visual Access to the Digital Library: the Use of Digital Library Interfaces by Blind and Visually-Impaired People: Annotated Bibliography (January 2001)": an extensive, heavily-annotated bibliography. "Areas covered include web accessibility, human computer interaction, information seeking behaviour, both on a general level and relating to blind and visually impaired people." An essential resource!

Project NoVA: "Non-Visual Access to the Digital Library: the Use of Digital Library Interfaces by Blind and Visually-Impaired People" is described briefly by Jenny Craven. Ms. Craven is also the author of "Understanding the searching process for visually impaired users of the Web," which describes serial searching, typically done by blind people using screen readers, in non-serial, web-based environments.

The REVIEL (Resources for Visually Impaired Users of the Electronic Library) project, conducted by The Centre for Research in Library and Information Management (CERLIM) has issued its final report: Peter Brophy and Jenny Craven, "The integrated, accessible library: a model of service development for the 21st century: the final report of the REVIEL (Resources for Visually Impaired Users of the Electronic Library) project (Centre for Research in Library & Information Management, Manchester Metropolitan University. [London] : British Library Board, 1999.)British Library research & innovation reports, ISSN 1366-8218 ; v.168. It is available in Word (504 Kb) or RTF (625 Kb) formats. The Project's "ultimate aim is to promote the development of a national, networked virtual library of resources accessible by, and where necessary designed for, people with serious sight problems, together with an advisory service for service developers and providers."

"Signing Books for the Deaf" is a project "to research current provision [of signed books in video format] in Europe, identify and evaluate best practice--and make this knowledge widely available as a resource to producers, publishers, presenters and viewers."

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VI. BEST PRACTICES

Unadvertised services to disabled people might as well not exist. Here are some public libraries that advertise their services on their web sites:

In colleges and universities, information services to people with disabilities are usually shared by three entities: the library, the office of disabled student services and the adaptive technology center, the latter often located in the library. Here are some examples of academic library services to people with disabilities:

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VII. COLLECTION DEVELOPMENT

The ALA Roads to Learning project has a "Core Collection List: LD Bibliography for Public Libraries," covering a broad range of learning disabilities. They have recently (1999) also compiled a list of the "Top 20 LD Resources for Libraries."

"A Guide to Children's Literature and Disability: 1989-1994," a bibliography prepared by NICHCY includes fiction and non-fiction on a variety of disabilities and at different grade levels. The "Other Guides to Disability Literature" should be supplemented by Debra Robertson, "Portraying Persons With Disabilities: An Annotated Bibliography of Fiction for Children and Teenagers" (New Providence, N.J.: R.R. Bowker, 1992).

"Inclusion & Parent Advocacy: A Resource Guide." Centereach, NY : Disability Resources, inc., with support from the New York State Developmental Disabilities Planning Council, c1996.

The National Library Service has updated its Reference Circular No. 99-01, "Building a Library Collection on Blindness and Physical Disabilities: Basic Materials and Resources (1999). It is available in print from the Reference Section of the National Library Service or from local Libraries for the Blind, but as of December 1999 was not yet available on the Web.

Sweeney, Wilma K. "The Special-Needs Reading List: An Annotated Guide to the Best Publications for Parents and Professionals. Bethesda, MD: Woodbine House, 1998. ISBN: 0933149743 (pbk.)

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VIII. BASIC BIBLIOGRAPHY OF RECENT WORK ON LIBRARY SERVICE TO DISABLED PATRONS

Amtmann, Dagmar and Debbie Cook. "Increasing Access to Information and Computer Technology for People with Disabilities through Public Libraries." CSUN Conference, 1999.

Association for Library Service to Children. Programming for Serving Children With Special Needs. Chicago: American Library Association, 1994. ISBN:0838957633.

Basu, S. G. Public Library Services to Visually Disabled Children. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1991.

Berryman, Jennifer. Into the Mainstream: Public Library Services to People with Visual Disabilities. Canberra, Australia: National Library of Australia, 1992.

Bowen, Johanna. "Resources List for Accessible Libraries." A highly selective list of the most widely-known resources.

"Equal Access to Information: Libraries Serving People With Disabilities", prepared by Elizabeth Breedlove and published by the New Jersey State Library, "provides an overview of the major topics that public and academic librarians need to be familiar with in order to provide services for people who are blind, have low vision, are deaf, hard-of-hearing or having learning disabilities." An appendix is "Selected Print and Web Resources for Providing Library Services for People with Disabilities."

Cantor, Alan. "The AD-AP-T-A-B-L-E Approach: Planning Accessible Libraries." Information Technology and Disabilities (Vol. 2 No. 4, December 1995). A "practical guide for librarians who are overwhelmed by AT." Cantor describes an approach for choosing accessibility aids that puts high-technology devices into a broader context.

Carpenter, Scott A., "The Americans with Disabilities Act: accommodation in Ohio," College & Research Libraries, 57 (November 1996), 555-66.

Casey, Carol. "Accessibility in the Virtual Library: Creating Equal Opportunity Web Sites." Information Technology and Libraries 18.1 (Mar. 1999): 22-25

Crispen, Joanne, L., ed. The Americans With Disabilities Act: Its Impact on Libraries: The Library's Response in "Doable" Steps. Chicago: ASCLA, 1993. ISBN: 0838976360.

De Candido, GraceAnne. Transforming Libraries, Issue 8: Service to Users with Disabilities. Washington: Association of Research Libraries, 1999. 29p. The online resources and product URL's are decidedly skimpy. For those who would rather not spend a dollar per page for the report, much of it is available online.

Deines-Jones, Courtney and Connie Van Fleet. Preparing Staff to Serve Patrons With Disabilities: A How-To-Do-It Manual. New York: Neal-Schuman, 1995. ISBN:1555702341.

Dunlap, Bob L., II. ""Disability, Culture and Service Issues: A Selected Bibliography" is heavier on attitudes and social trends than on library service itself but gathers a great deal of the relevant material.

Colleen B. Eggett, "Assistive Technology Needs in Public Libraries: A Survey," Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, Vol.XX (August 2002), pp.549-557. The abstract describes the study: "The aims of this survey of 4,939 clients of the Utah State Library for the Blind and Disabled were to determine who would use assistive technology (AT) in their public libraries, to profile factors influencing its use, and to evaluate the level of awareness of available services. Less than a quarter of the participants reported that AT was available in their public libraries, and a higher proportion of younger than older people would use it if it were available."

Feinberg, Sandra. Including Families of Children with Special Needs: A How-To-Do-It Manual for Librarians. New York: Neal Schuman, 1999. ISBN 1-555-70339-9.

Graubart, Marilyn, "Training and Specialized Bibliographic Instruction." Information Technology and Disabilities (Vol. 2 No. 4, December 1995) A brief account of library instruction aimed at people with physical disabilities.

Karp, Rashelle S., comp. Library Services for Disabled Individuals. Boston, MA: G.K. Hall, 1991.

Lazzaro, Joseph J. "Helping the Web Help the Disabled." IEEE Spectrum 36.3 (Mar. 1999): 54-59.

Lazzaro, Joseph J. Adaptive Technologies for Learning and Work Environments (2nd ed.). Chicago: American Library Association, 2001; ISBN 0838908047.

Leibs, Andrew. A Field Guide for the Sight-Impaired Reader : A Comprehensive Resource for Students, Teachers, and Librarians. Westport, Conn. : Greenwood Press, 1999. ISBN 0313309698 (alk. paper).

"Library and information services for individuals with disabilities. An NCLIS hearing in Washington, DC July 8, 1999." U.S. National Commission on Libraries and Information , Washington, DC: 2000. 312 p.

Markku Leino, "Electronical Books--Lending Experiment," describes a 1996 library program in which ASCII files of scanned books were transmitted by modem to visually handicapped readers' computers. It used a proprietary reading program that disabled the Save and Print Screen commands and set the book file to expire after sixty days--all features being used in the current crop of commercial e-books.

Lovejoy, Eunice G. Portraits of Library Service to People With Disabilities. Boston, MA: G.K. Hall, 1990. ISBN: 0816119228.

Marshall, Margaret Richardson. Managing Library Provision for Handicapped Children. London; New York: Mansell, 1991. ISBN: 0720120780.

Massis, Bruce Edward, ed. Serving Print Disabled Library Patrons: A Textbook for Facilitators of Library Service to People With Visual or Physical Impairments. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1996. ISBN: 0786402091.

Mates, Barbara T., with contributions by Doug Wakefield and Judith Dixon. Adaptive Technology for the Internet: Making Electronic Resources Accessible to All. Chicago and London: American Library Association, 2000. ISBN: 0-8389-0752-0. Also available in full on the Web.

Mates, Barbara. Library Technology for Visually and Physically Impaired Patrons. Westport, CT: Meckler, 1991. ISBN: 0887367046.

McNulty, Tom and Dawn Suvino. Access to Information: Materials, Technologies, and Services for Print-impaired Readers. Chicago: American Library Association, 1993. ISBN: 0838976417.

McNulty, Tom, ed. Accessible Libraries on Campus: A Practical Guide for the Creation of Disability-Friendly Libraries. Chicago: ACRL, 1999. ISBN: 083898035X.

María Jesús Moreno examines the accessibility of on-line public access catalogs in North American and Europe in "El Acceso de los Usuarios Discapacitados a las Paginas Web: Analisis Comparativo del Estado de la Cuestion en America del Norte y Europa."

Norlin, Dennis A., et al. A Directory of Adaptive Technologies to Aid Library Patrons and Staff With Disabilities. Chicago: Library and Information Technology Association, 1994. ISBN:0838977545.

Nomura, Misako, and Mayu Yamada, eds. International Directory of Libraries for the Blind. 4th ed. Munich, Germany: K.G. Saur Verlag Gmbh., 2000. (IFLA Publications, 90). 252p. This resource covers not only libraries for the blind but also a wide range of other institutions serving blind readers, including braille transcription agencies, recording services, social service agencies and a wide variety of non-governmental agencies.

Nussbaum, Ruth. Library and Information Services to Individuals with Disabilities. National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped, Reference Bibliography No. 97-01. Washington, DC: NLS/BPH, 1997. [This collects a great deal of periodical literature that would otherwise be very difficult to track down, including some very useful work being done in Australia.]

Oliver, Kenton L. 1997. "The spirit of the law: when ADA compliance means overall excellence in service to patrons with disabilities." Public Libraries 36 (September/October): 294-8.

Pack, Nancy C. and Donald D. Foos. 1992. "Library compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act." RQ 32 (Winter): 255-67.

Rubin, Rhea Joyce. Planning for Library Services to People with Disabilities. Chicago: ASCLA,2001. ISBN: 0-8389-8168-2. 108p. $30. The ten points include gathering information, convening an advisory committee, identifying issues, analyzing the library's current plan, drafting goals and objectives, determining available resources, finalizing goals and objectives, drafting the plan, finalizing the plan and evaluating the plan.

Rubin, Rhea Joyce. Lessons Learned: ADA Compliance in California's Public Libraries. Sacramento, CA: Ca;lifornia State Library, 1995.

Simpkins, Rebecca. Researching the Information Needs of Disabled People. London: Policy Studies Institute, 1994. ISBN:0853746400.

Spiers, Desmond L. "Visual Impairment and Children's Reading Needs," Youth Library Review, Issue 22 (Autumn 1996). Spiers also has a 1998 update to this article, as well as articles on the reading needs of children with physical disabilities and with hearing loss.

Systems and Procedures Exchange Center. Library Services for Persons With Disabilities. Washington, DC: Association of Research Libraries, Office of Management Services, 1991.

The Texas Assistive Technology Partnership is the author of "Library Access for Persons with Disabilities: A Resource for Texas Librarians," which covers the essential topics, including "Designing an Accessible Workstation."

Turner, Ray. Library Patrons With Disabilities. San Antonio, TX: White Buffalo Press, 1996. ISBN: 0965303705.

Velleman, Ruth A. Meeting the Needs of People With Disabilities: a Guide for Librarians, Educators, and Other Service Professionals. Phoenix, AZ: Oryx, 1990. ISBN: 0897745213.

Walling, Linda Lucas and Marilyn H. Karrenbrock. Disabilities, Children, and Libraries: Mainstreaming Services in Public Libraries and School Media Centers. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 1993. ISBN:087287897X.

Wesson, Caren L. and Margaret J. Keefe. Serving Special Needs Students in the School Library Media Center. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1995. ISBN:0313286973.

Wiler, Linda Lou and Eleanor Lomax, "The Americans with Disabilities Act," Journal of Southern Academic and Special Librarianship (2000). The authors report the dismaying results of a survey taken in 1999. Only half the responding libraries have adaptive equipment; half have no plans for future action to comply with the ADA.

Wright, Kieth C. Library and Information Services for Handicapped Individuals. 3rd ed. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 1989.

Wright, Kieth C. and Judith F. Davie. Library Manager's Guide to Hiring and Serving Disabled Patrons. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1990. ISBN: 0899505163.

Wright, Kieth C. and Judith F. Davie. Serving the Disabled: A How-to-Do-It Manual for Librarians. New York: Neal-Schuman, 1991. ISBN:1555700853.

Zipkowitz, Fay, ed. Reference Services for the Unserved. New York: Haworth Press, 1996. ISBN:1560247975.

For two large-scale studies of services to people with disabilities in academic libraries see:

Green, Ravonne A. "Assistive Technologies for Individuals with Print Disabilities in Academic Libraries." Ph.D. Dissertation. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1999. Abstract available online.

The Adeptech Project conducted an extensive study of student use of adaptive technology in higher education; the study is highly relevant to libraries offering services to disabled students. Fichten, C.S. Barile, M. & Asuncion, J.V. (1999, Spring). Learning technologies: Students with disabilities in postsecondary education / Projet Adaptech : L'Utilisation des technologies d'apprentissage par les etudiant(e)s handicape(e)s au niveau postsecondaire (190 pages). ISBN 2-9803316-4-3. Final report to the Office of Learning Technologies. Ottawa: Human Resources Development Canada. A full-text version of the report is available in English in Adobe Acrobat format on the World Wide Web.

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